Selected telehealth publications by members of the Rural Telehealth Research Center:


  • Tu KJ, Vakkalanka JP, Okoro UE, Harland KK, Wymore C, Fuller BM, Campbell K, Swanson MB, Parker EA, Mack LJ, Bell A, DeJong K, Faine B, Zepeski A, Mueller K, Chrischilles E, Carpenter CR, Jones MP, Ward MM, Mohr NM. Provider-to-provider telemedicine for sepsis is used less frequently in communities with high social vulnerability. Journal of Rural Health. 26 June 2024
  • Ternes S, Lavin L, Vakkalanka JP, Healy HS, Merchant KA, Ward MM, Mohr NM.  The role of increasing synchronous telehealth use during the COVID-19 pandemic on disparities in access to healthcare: A systematic review.  Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare. 2024 Apr 22:1357633X241245459. doi: 10.1177/1357633X241245459. Online ahead of print. PMID: 38646804
  • Bozkurt B, Planey AM, Aijaz M, Weinstein JM, Cilenti D, Shea CM, Khairat S. Disparities in Maternal Health Visits Between Rural and Urban Communities in the United States, 2016–2018. The Permanente Journal. 2024 Apr 23:1-1.
  • Ward MM, Bhagianadh D, Carter KD, Ullrich F, Marcin JP, McCord C, Law KB, Nelson E, Merchant KAS. Comparison of Treatment Modality Crossovers in Telehealth and In-Person Behavioral Health Treatment in Rural Communities. Telemedicine and e-Health 2024 30:3, 677-684
  • Mohr NM, Young T, Vakkalanka JP, Carter KD, Shane DM, Ullrich F, Shuette AR, Mack LJ, DeJong K, Bell A, Pals M, Camargo CA, Zachrison KS, Boggs KM, Skibbe A, Ward MM. Provider-to-provider telehealth for sepsis patients in a cohort of rural emergency departments. Acad Emerg Med. 2024; 00: 1-13. doi:10.1111/acem.14857
  • Vakkalanka JP, Gadag K, Lavin L, Ternes S, Healy HS, Merchant KAS, Scott W, Wiggins W, Ward MM, Mohr NM. Telehealth use and health equity for mental health and substance use disorder during the COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review. Telemed J E Health. 2024 Jan 15. doi: 10.1089/tmj.2023.0588. Eub ahead of print. PMID: 38227387.
  • Vakkalanka JP, Holcombe A, Ward MM, Carter KD, McCoy KD, Clark HM, Gutierrez JT, Merchant KAS, Mohr NM. Chronic disease management through clinical video telehealth on health care utilization, and mortality in the Veterans Health Administration: A retrospective cohort study. Telemedicine and e-Health. 2024 Jan 10. doi: 10.1089/tmj.2023.0285. Online ahead of print. PMID: 38206653
  • Planey AM, Bozkurt B, Aijaz M, Weinstein J, Khairat S, Shea CM. Telehealth Use by Pregnancy Stage Among Commercially Insured Patients in the United States, 2016–2019. Telemedicine and e-Health. 2024 Jan 1;30(1):93-102.


  • Ward MM, Carter KD, Bhagianadh D, Ullrich F, Merchant KAS, Marcin JP, Law KB, McCord C, Neufeld J, Nelson E, Shane DM. Comparison of telehealth and in-person behavioral health services and payment in a large rural multisite usual care study.
    Telemedicine and e-Health 2023 29:11, 1613-1623
  • Ward MM, Bhagianadh D, Nelson E, Marcin JP, Carter KD, Law KB, McCord C, Neufeld J, Merchant KAS.  Telehealth and in-person behavioral health services in rural communities before and during the COVID-19 pandemic: Multisite prospective cohort study.  JMIR Mental Health. Vol. 10.  September 18, 2023.
  • Ward MM, Merchant KA, Ullrich F, Bhagianadh D, Carter KD, Smith K, Gillette TL, Freed S, Mack LJ. Telehealth services for primary care and urgent care to support rural schools and students. Telemedicine and e-Health. 2023 Jul 1;29(7):1027-34.
  • Mohr NM, Vakkalanka JP, Holcombe A, Carter KD, McCoy KD, Clark HM, Gutierrez J, Merchant KA, Bailey GJ, Ward MM. Effect of chronic disease home telehealth monitoring in the Veterans Health Administration on healthcare utilization and mortality. Journal of General Internal Medicine. 2023 May 8:1-8.
  • Neufeld J, Ullrich F, Merchant KA, Bhagianadh D, Carter KD, Marcin JP, Nelson EL, McCord C, Law KB, Ward MM. Change in Drug Use Disorders Identification Test–Consumption (DUDIT-C) with Telehealth Treatment Compared to in-Person Treatment. Substance Use & Misuse. 2023 May 8:1-4.
  • Talbot, JA, Burgess, AR, Jonk, YC, O'Connor, H. Federal telehealth policy changes during the COVID-19 public health emergency: Associations with telemental health use among rural and urban Medicare beneficiaries. The Journal of Rural Health. 2023; 1- 11.
  • Tu KJ, Wymore C, Tchangalova N, Fuller BM, Mohr NM. The impact of telehealth in sepsis care: A systematic review. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare. 2023;0(0). doi:10.1177/1357633X231170038
  • Mohr NM, Okoro U, Harland KK, Fuller BM, Campbell K, Swanson MB, Wymore C, Faine B, Zepeski A, Parker EA, Mack L. Outcomes associated with rural emergency department provider-to-provider telehealth for sepsis care: A multicenter cohort study. Annals of Emergency Medicine. 2023 Jan 1;81(1):1-3.


  • Ward MM, Bhagianadh D, Ullrich F, Merchant KA, Mena C. Overview of School-Based Telehealth Network Grant Program services delivered to students in rural schools. The Journal of School Nursing. 2022 Dec 4:10598405221142498.
  • Ward MM, Bhagianadh D, Ullrich F, Merchant KAS, Meyer CL, Wovcha S, Reyelts E. Two teledentistry models that provide essential oral health services in rural school settings. Journal of Dental Hygiene. 2022 Dec 1;96(6).
  • McCord C, Ullrich F, Merchant KAS, Bhagianadh D, Carter KD, Nelson E, Marcin JP, Law KB, Neufeld J, Giovanetti A, Ward MM. Comparison of in-person vs. telebehavioral health outcomes from rural populations across America. BMC Psychiatry 22, 778 (2022).
  • Vakkalanka JP, Nataliansyah MM, Merchant KA, Mack LJ, Parsons S, Mohr NM, Ward MM. Telepsychiatry services across an emergency department network: a mixed methods study of the implementation process. The American Journal of Emergency Medicine. 2022 Sep 1;59:79-84.
  • Nataliansyah MM, Merchant KAS, Croker JA, Zhu X, Mohr NM, Marcin J, Rahmouni H, and Ward MM. Managing Innovation: A Qualitative Study on the Delivery of Telehealth Service in Rural Emergency Departments. BMC Health Services Research, 852 (2022).
  • Mohr NM, Schuette AR, Ullrich F, Mack LJ, DeJong K, Camargo Jr CA, Zachrison KS, Boggs KM, Skibbe A, Bell A, Pals M, Shane DM, Carter KD, Merchant KA, Ward MM. An economic and health outcome evaluation of telehealth in rural sepsis care: a comparative effectiveness study. Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research. 2022 Jul;11(10):703-16.
  • Ward MM, Ullrich F, Merchant KAS, Carter KD, Bhagianadh D, Lacks M, Taylor E, Gordon J. Describing changes in telebehavioral health utilization and services delivery in rural school settings in pre- and early stages of the COVID-19 public health emergency. Journal of School Health. 92(5), 452-460, May 2022
  • Shea CM, Turner K, Weinstein J, Tabriz AA, Babu N, Reeve JL, North S. Telestroke Infrastructure, Processes, and Support Needs: A Survey of Hospitals in Five States. Telemedicine and e-Health. 2022 Apr 13. doi: 10.1089/tmj.2022.0049 
  • Fox K, Burgess A, Williamson ME, Massey J, Shaler G, Pearson K, MacKenzie J, Merchant K, Zhu X, Ward M. Implementation of Telehealth Services in Rural Schools: A Qualitative Assessment. Journal of School Health. 2022 Jan;92(1):71-8. doi: 10.1111/josh.13104


  • Tabriz AA, Turner K, Williams D, Babu N, North S, Shea CM. Association of financial factors and telemedicine adoption for heart attack and stroke care among rural and urban hospitals: A longitudinal study. Telemedicine and e-Health. 2021 Sep 24. doi: 10.1089/tmj.2021.0341.
  • Mohr NM, Campbell KD, Swanson MB, Ullrich F, Merchant KA, Ward MM. Provider-to-provider telemedicine improves adherence to sepsis bundle care in community emergency departments. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare. 2021 Sep;27(8):518-526. doi: 10.1177/1357633X19896667.
  • Weigel P, Bhagianadh D, Merchant KA, Wittrock A, Rahmouni H, Bell A, Laws S, Ward MM. Tele-emergency behavioural health in rural and underserved areas. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare. 2021 Aug;27(7):453-462. doi: 10.1177/1357633X19887027.
  • Swanson MB, Miller AC, Ward MM, Ullrich F, Merchant KA, Mohr NM. Emergency department telemedicine consults decrease time to interpret computed tomography of the head in a multi-network cohort. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare. 2021 Jul;27(6):343-352. doi: 10.1177/1357633X19877746.
  • Ward MM, Carter KD, Ullrich F, Merchant KAS, Natafgi N, Zhu X, Weigel P, Heppner S, Mohr NM. Averted transfers in rural emergency departments using telemedicine: Rates and costs across six networks. Telemedicine and e-Health. 2021 May;27(5):481-487. doi: 10.1089/tmj.2020.0080.
  • Mohr NM, Harland KK, Okoro UE, Fuller BM, Campbell K, Swanson MB, Simpson SQ, Parker EA, Mack LJ, Bell A, DeJong K, Faine B, Zepeski A, Mueller K, Chrischilles E, Carpenter CR, Jones MP, Ward MM. TELEmedicine as an intervention for sepsis in emergency departments: a multicenter, comparative effectiveness study (TELEvISED Study). Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research. 2021 Feb;10(2):77-91. doi: 10.2217/cer-2020-0141
  • Weigel PA, Merchant KAS, Wittrock A, Kissee J, Ullrich F, Bell A, Marcin J, Ward MM. Pediatric tele-emergency care: A study of two delivery models. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare. 2021 Jan;27(1):23-31. doi: 10.1177/1357633X19839610.
  • Heppner S, Mohr NM, Carter KD, Ullrich F, Merchant KAS, Ward MM. HRSA’s Evidence-Based Tele-Emergency Network Grant Program: Multi-site prospective cohort analysis across six rural emergency department telemedicine networks. PLoS One. 2021 Jan 12;16(1):e0243211. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0243211. eCollection 2021. PMID: 33434197


  • Miller AC, Ward MM, Ullrich F, Merchant KAS, Swanson MB, Mohr NM. Emergency department telemedicine consults are associated with faster Time-to-Electrocardiogram and Time-to-Fibrinolysis for myocardial infarction patients. Telemedicine and e-Health. 2020 Dec;26(12):1440-1448. doi: 10.1089/tmj.2019.0273. Epub 2020 Feb 28. PMID: 32109200.
  • Jonk Y, Burgess A, Elbaum Williamson M, Thayer D, MacKenzie J, McGuire C, Fox K, Coburn A. Telehealth use in a rural state: A mixed methods study using Maine’s All-Payer Claims Database. Journal of Rural Health2021 Sep;37(4):769-779. doi: 10.1111/jrh.12527. Epub 2020 Oct 21 
  • Talbot J, Jonk Y, Burgess AR, Thayer D, Ziller E, Paluso N, Coburn AF. Telebehavioral health use among rural Medicaid beneficiaries: Relationships with telehealth policies.  Journal of Rural Mental Health. 44(4), 217–231.  September 3, 2020.
  • Oest SER, Swanson MB, Ahmed A, Mohr NM. Perceptions and Perceived Utility of Rural Emergency Department Telemedicine Services: A Needs Assessment. Telemedicine and e-Health. 2020 Jul;26(7):855-864. doi: 10.1089/tmj.2019.0168.
  • Zhu X, Merchant KAS, Mohr NM, Wittrock AJ, Bell AL, Ward MM. Real-time learning through telemedicine enhances professional training in rural emergency departments. Telemedicine and e-Health. June 17, 2020. Doi:10.1089/tmj.2020.0042
  • Natafgi N, Mohr NM, Wittrock A, Bell A, Ward MM. The association between telemedicine and emergency department (ED) disposition: A stepped wedge design of an ED-based telemedicine program in critical access hospitals. Journal of Rural Health. 36(3):360-370, Summer 2020.


  • Vakkalanka J, Harland K, Wittrock A, Schmidt M, Mack L, Nipe M, Himadi E, Ward MM, Mohr NM.  Telemedicine is associated with rapid transfer and fewer involuntary holds among patients presenting with suicidal ideation in rural hospitals: A propensity matched cohort study.  Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 2019 Nov;73(11):1033-1039.
  • Mohr NM. Chapter: Telemedicine for the early treatment of sepsis. In book Telemedicine in the intensive care unit. (Koenig MA, Ed.). April 2019.
  • Mohr NM, Young T, Harland KK, Skow B, Wittrock A, Bell A, Ward MM. Telemedicine is associated with faster diagnostic imaging in stroke patients: A cohort study. Telemedicine and e-Health. 25(2):93-100, 2019.
  • Shea CM, Turner K, Tabriz AA, North S. Implementation strategies for telestroke: A qualitative study of telestroke networks in North Carolina. Telemedicine and e-Health. 25(8):708-715, 2019.
  • Talbot JA, Burgess AR, Thayer D, Parenteau L, Paluso N, Coburn AF. Patterns of telehealth use among rural Medicaid beneficiaries. Journal of Rural Health. 35:298-307, 2019.


  • Ward MM, Merchant KAS, Carter KD, Zhu X, Ullrich F, Wittrock A, Bell A. Use of telemedicine for ED physician coverage in critical access hospitals increased after CMS policy clarification. Health Affairs. 37(12):2037-2044, 2018.
  • Rising KL, Ward MM, Goldwater JC, Bhaglanadh D, Hollander JE. Framework to advance oncology-related telehealth. JCO Clinical Cancer Informatics - published online June 29, 2018. DOI: 10.1200/CCI.17.00156
  • Shea CM, Tabriz AA, Turner K, North S, Reiter KL Telestroke adoption among community hospitals in North Carolina: A cross-sectional study. Journal of Stroke Cerebrovascular Diseases. 27(9):2411-2417, 2018.
  • Mohr NM, Vakkalanka JP, Faine BA, Skow B, Harland KK, Dick-Perez R, Fuller BM, Ahmed A, Simpson SQ. Serum anion gap predicts lactate poorly, but may be used to identify sepsis patients at risk for death: A cohort study. Journal of Critical Care. 44:223-228, 2018.
  • Akhtar M, Van Heukelom PG, Ahmed A, Tranter RD, White E, Shekem N, Walz D, Fairfield C, Vakkalanka JP, Mohr NM. Telemedicine physical examination utilizing a consumer device demonstrates poor concordance with in-person physical examination in emergency department patients with sore throat: A prospective blinded study. Telemedicine and e-Health. 24(10):790-796, 2018.
  • Natafgi N, Shane D, Ullrich F, MacKinney C, Bell A, Ward M. Using tele-emergency to avoid patient transfers in rural emergency departments: An assessment of costs and benefits. Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare. 24(3):193-201, 2018.
  • Mohr NM, Young T, Harland KK, Skow B, Wittrock A, Bell A, Ward MM. Emergency department telemedicine shortens rural time-to-provider and emergency department transfer times. Telemedicine and e-Health. 24(8):582-593, 2018.
  • Mohr NM, Vakkalanka JP, Harland KK., Bell A, Skow B, Shane DM, Ward M. Telemedicine use decreases rural emergency department length of stay for transferred North Dakota trauma patients. Telemedicine and e-Health. 24(3):194-202, 2018.


  • Harris Y, Gilman B, Ward M, Ladinsky J, Crowley J, Warren C, Caplan C. Building the evidence base for tele-emergency care: Efforts to identify a standardized set of outcome measures. Telemedicine and e-Health. 23(7):561-566, 2017. 
  • Mohr NM, Harland KK, Chrischilles EA, Bell A, Shane DM, Ward MM. Emergency department telemedicine is used for more severely injured rural trauma patients, but does not decrease transfer: A cohort study. Academic Emergency Medicine. 24(2):177-185, 2017.
  • Van Oeveren L, Donner J, Fantegrossi A, Mohr NM, Brown CA 3rd. Telemedicine-assisted intubation in rural emergency departments: A national emergency airway registry study. Telemedicine and e-Health. 23(4):290-297, 2017.


  • Ward MM, Ullrich F, MacKinney AC, Bell A, Shipp S, Mueller KJ. Tele-emergency utilization: In what clinical situations is tele-emergency activated? Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare. 22(1):25-31, 2016.
  • Bobb MR, Van Heukelom PG, Faine BA, Ahmed A, Messerly JT, Bell G, Harland KK, Simon C, Mohr NM. Telemedicine provides noninferior research informed consent for remote study enrollment: A randomized controlled trial. Academic Emergency Medicine. 23(7):759-765, 2016.
  • Potter A, Ward M, Natafgi N, Ullrich F, MacKinney AC, Bell A, Mueller K. Perceptions of the benefits of telemedicine in rural communities. Perceptions of Health Information Management. Summer 2016.
  • Lambert D, Gale J, Hartley D, Croll Z, Hansen A. Understanding the business case for telemental health in rural communities. Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research. 43(3):366-379, 2016.


  • Ward MM, Ullrich F, Potter A, MacKinney AC, Kappel S, Mueller KJ. Factors affecting staff perceptions of tele-ICU service in rural hospitals. Telemedicine and e-Health. 21(6):1-8, 2015
  • MacKinney AC, Ward MM, Ullrich F, Ayyagari P, Bell A, Mueller KJ. The business case for tele-emergency. Telemedicine and e-Health. 21(12):1005-1011, 2015.
  • Ward MM, Jaana M, Natafgi N. Systematic review of telemedicine applications in emergency rooms. International Journal of Medical Informatics. 84:601-616, 2015.


  • Potter AJ, Mueller KJ, Mackinney AC, Ward MM. Effect of tele-emergency services on recruitment and retention of US rural physicians. Rural Remote Health. 2014;14(3):2787. Epub 2014 Aug 13. PMID: 25115747.
  • Shea CM, Teal R, Haynes-Maslow LM, McIntyre MR, Weiner BJ, Wheeler SB, Jacobs SR, Mayer DK, Young MD, Shea TC. Assessing the feasibility of a virtual tumor board program: a case study. Journal of Healthcare Management. 59(3):177-194, 2014.
  • North SW, McElligot J, Douglas G, Martin A. Improving access to care through the patient-centered medical home. Pediatric Annals. 43(2):e33-e38, 2014.


  • Mueller KJ, Potter AJ, MacKinney AC, Ward MM. Lessons from tele-emergency: Improving care quality and health outcomes by expanding the care team and supporting rural care systems. Health Affairs. 33(2):228-234, 2013.


  • Wakefield DS, Ward MM, Loes JL, O'Brien J. A network collaboration implementing technology to improve medication dispensing and administration in critical access hospitals. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association. 17:584-587, 2010.
  • Roberts LL, Ward MM, Brokel JM, Wakefield DS, Crandall DK, Conlon P. Impact of health information technology on detection of potential adverse drug events at the ordering stage. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy. 67:1838-1846, 2010.
  • Wakefield DS, Ward MM, Loes J, O'Brien J, Sperry L. Implementation of a telepharmacy service to provide round-the-clock medication order review by pharmacists. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy. 67:2052-2057, 2010.


  • Wakefield BJ, Ward MM, Holman JE, Ray A, Scherubel M, Burns TL, Kienzle MG, Rosenthal GE. Evaluation of home telehealth following hospitalization for heart failure: A randomized trial. Telemedicine and e-Health. 14(8):753-761, 2008.